British Rule – Lord Dalhousie (1448-56)

The process of liquidating Sikh power started by Hardinge was completed by Lord Dalhousie who annexed Punjab defeating Sikhs in 1849 in Second Sikh War. In 1852 he annexed the entire lower strip of Burma by defeating Burmese forces in Second Burmese War.

The Doctrine of Lapse: It was a policy initiated by Lord Dalhousie, according to which, on the failure of natural heirs, the sovereignty of Indian states was not to descend to an adopted son
but was to lapse to the British. According to this policy, kingdoms of Nagpur, Jhansi . Tanjore and Awadh were annexed. Lord Dalhousie also reduced the pension of Nana Sahib, the son d Bajirao II which injured the conscience in India.

Reforms: During his reign the first railway from Bombay to Thana was opened in 1853, The same year Calcutta and Agra were connected by telegraph.

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