India has submitted its INDC to UNFCCC and pledged to reduce its greenhouse emissions intensity by 33 to 35 percent by 2030 from 2005 level. India also intended to achieve 40 per cent cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel by 2030. Apart from these two major announcements India has kept the goal of increasing forest and tree cover for an additional carbon sink of 2.5 – 3 billion tons.It has been estimated that a sum $ 2.5 trillion will be required for achievement of these goals by 2030. These goals are ambitious but achievable.
India is the fourth biggest emitter of greenhouse gases after China, United States, and the European Union.
Following are eight goals of India’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution:
- To put forward and further propagate a healthy and sustainable way of living based on traditions and values of conservation and moderation.
- To adopt a climate friendly and a cleaner path than the one followed hitherto by others at the corresponding level of economic development.
- To reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35 percent by 2030 from 2005 level.
- To achieve about 40 percent cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel based energy resources by 2030 with the help of transfer of technology and low-cost international finance including from Green Climate Fund (GCF).
- To create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent through the additional forest and tree cover by 2030.
- To better adapt to climate change by enhancing investments in development programmes in sectors vulnerable to climate change, particularly agriculture, water resources, Himalayan region, coastal regions, health and disaster management.
- To mobilise domestic and new and additional funds from developed countries to implement the above mitigation and adaptation actions in view of the resource required and the resource gap.
- To build capacities, create the domestic framework and international architecture for quick diffusion of cutting-edge climate technology in India and for joint collaborative R&D for such future technologies.
What is INDC?
Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) is a kind of promise by countries before United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
India submitted its 38 page INDC just before the deadline of submission in final hours. It was asked by UNFCCC to submit individual goal from every country. Including India, 120 countries have now submitted their INDCs.
What it has to do with Paris Conference?
The Paris conference will begin on November 30 and will run till December 11. The INDCs are expected to become a part of the Paris agreement and countries will become accountable to what they have promised in their INDCs.
What are INDC targets of other countries?
Reduce emission intensity by 26 to 28 percent below 2005 levels in 2025; make best efforts to reach upper level
China (all targets for 2030)
1. Achieve peaking of carbon dioxide emissions intensity around 2030 and make best efforts to peak early
2. Lower carbon dioxide emissions intensityper unit of GDP by 60 to 65 percent from the 2005 level
3. To increase the share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy consumption to around 20 per cent
4. To increase the forest stock volume by around 4.5 billion cubic meters on the 2005 level.
At least 40% domestic reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared to 1990
1. Reduce emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35 percent by 2030 from 2005 level.
2. Achieve about 40 percent electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel based energy resources by 2030 with help of transfer of technology and low-cost international finance
3. Create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent through the additional forest and tree cover by 2030.
Reduce greenhouse gas emissions intensity by 37% below 2005 levels in 2025. Reduce it further, by 43% below 2005 levels in 2030
Reduce emissions intensity by 26 per cent by 2030 compared to 2013 levels (25.4 per cent compared to 2005)
Limit greenhouse gas emissions intensity to 70 to 75 percent of 1990 levels by 2030
Let its emissions intensity peak between 2020 and 2025, plateau for approximately a decade, and decline in absolute terms thereafter.