Crops Grown and Types of Soils in India

Soil is the topmost layer of the earth’s surface. It consists of a mixture of minute particles of disintegrated rocks,  minerals, organic matter and bacteria. Soil is formed when forces of nature such as temperature, rain, wind, waves, animals and plants act on rocks and break them into tiny pieces over a long period of time. The depth of soil is not the same in all parts of the country. Here is a brief note on Crops Grown and Types of Soils in India.
Soil consists of four layers. The first or topmost layer of soil is made up of minute soil particles and decayed plant and animal matter. This layer is vital for the cultivation of crops. The second layer is made up of fine particles like clay; the third layer is a combination of weathered basic rock materials and soil while the fourth layer consists of un-weathered hard rocks.

Crops Grown and Types of Soils in India – Points to Remember

  •  The crop which requires waterlogging for its cultivation – Rice
  • The crop which best suited in areas where rain falls only for two months – Pulses
  • The ideal crop for areas with rainfall above 200 cm and sloping hills – Tea
  • The crop which requires a large amount of rainfall and no standing water – Tea

Also Read: Minerals: India’s Mineral Resources

 Crops : Largest Producers

  •  The largest producer of paddy in India-West Bengal
  • The largest producer of wheat in India-Uttar Pradesh
  • The largest producer of sugarcane in India – Uttar Pradesh
  • The largest producer of groundnut in India – Gujarat
  • The largest producer of tea in India -Assam
  • The largest producer of coffee in India – Karnataka
  • The largest producer of jute in India- West Bengal
  • The largest producer of tobacco in India – Andhra Pradesh
  • The largest producer of bananas in India – Tamilnadu
  • The largest producer of saffron in India – Jammu & Kashmir
  • The largest producer of onion in India- Maharashtra
  • The largest producer of black pepper in India – Kerala
  • The largest producer of cotton in India – Gujarat
  • The largest producer of bamboos in India – Assam
  • The largest producer of litchis in India – Bihar

Read Also: Crops of the world

 Crops in India

  • The crop which is sown in largest area in India – Rice
  • The crop whose production is the largest in India – Sugarcane
  • The cereal crop whose production is the largest in India – Rice
  • The agricultural produce which has the highest percentage share of imports – Edible Oil
  • The agricultural produce which has the highest percentage share of exports – Rice

 Facts about Soils

  •  The soil most common in Indogangetic plains – Alluvial
  • The soil which swells when wet and develops cracks when dry – Black
  • The soil which owes its color to oxides of iron – Laterite
  • The soil which requires the least use of fertilizers – Alluvial
  • The soil which requires the least tiling – Black
  • The kind of soil which is treated with gypsum to make it suitable for cropping – Alkaline soil
  • The soil which is poor insoluble salts – Laterite
  • The soil which is rich in surface accumulation of organic matter – Peaty soil
  • The soil which is most suitable for cultivation of cotton – Black

Must Read:

Monsoon, Floods, and Droughts

Types of Indian soils and their distribution

Soils in India

Rivers, Waterfalls, and Glaciers

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