Diet denotes the group of all edible substances essential for growth and maintenance of the body. The important components of the diet are proteins,fats,carbohydrates,vitamins,salts and water. The diseases caused by deficient diet are known as deficiency diseases.
The Balanced diet or mixed diet:It is that specific diet which can provide all the essential constituents necessary for growth and maintenance of the body, in a definite amount in which they require.While prescribing balanced diet following points must be considered(a) It must contain all the essential constituents inadequate amount. (b) there must be the definite proportion between the different constituents. (C) cooking of food is essential because it sterilizes food stuff, makes it palatable and easily digestible. (d) The food should be given according to their age.
Also Read: Numbers in Human Body.
CLASSIFICATION OF FOOD.
(2)Proteins:Eggs,beans,milk,meat,pulses and fish etc.
(3)Fats and oils:Oil, oil seeds, butter, nuts,ghee, etc.
(4)Vitamins:All most every food contains one vitamin or the other, or more than one vitamin.
(6)Water:Most of the food contains water.
Carbohydrates are compounds of carbon,hydrogen,oxygen and constituents sugar e.g. glucose,starch etc. they provide about half of the required energy and thus maintain the temperature of the body.
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Proteins are compounds having excess of nitrogen with carbon,hydrogen,oxygen and sum times sulfur and phosphorous. They are mainly responsible for growth. Proteins liberate energy in the absence of fats and carbohydrates. Their absence causes extreme weakness.
Fats and oils:
Fats and oils contain same component as carbohydrates and are the better source of energy, which is again produced by burning.
Vitamins are discovered by Lunin in 1881. They may be defined as organic substances which are essential for the growth of the body and required in small amounts. They are the mixer of organic compounds and have been named as A,B,C,D,E,K,P etc. each of them performs definite functions.
It is present in the cord,halibut and shark liver oils,milk,butter,egg and green vegetables etc. It is essential for the growth of the body and protects skin. Its deficiency causes night blindness and stunted growth of the body.
Vitamin B1 complex:
It is found in cereal,yeast,green vegetables and eggs mainly. Its deficiency leads to beriberi and anaemia.
Vitamin B2 complex:
It is the mixture of about 12 components. It is obtained from milk, egg, meat, butter,cereals and green vegetables. This vitamin is very important for the growth and formation of blood. Its deficiency leads to subnormal growth, anaemia, pellagra.
it is present in large amount in vegetables e.g. lemon, orange and fresh fruits. Its deficiency leads to scurvy and susceptibility to infection.
It is present in abundance in cod, halibut and shark liver oils,blue fin tuna Milk , butter, egg and sunlight are the good source of vitamin D. its deficiency leads to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adult females.
it is found in cereals, seeds, green vegetables, egg and meat. Its deficiency causes sterility.
It is mainly confined to green leafy vegetables. It maintains the normal clotting of blood.
It is present in association with vitamin C. It helps the action of vitamin C and keeps the blood capillaries healthy .
Salts of calcium potassium, sodium, magnesium, iron, sulphur, chlorine, iodine are essential for the healthy body.
Water constitutes 70% of our body . It maintains the body temperature.