Milestones in Space Exploration

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Milestones in Space Exploration
Date
Mission Achievements
Country/ Organization
Mission Name
1931
First German military liquid-fuelled rocket engines developed
Germany
Walter Riedel
10 May 1946
First space research flight (cosmic radiation experiments)
United States
captured and improved V-2 rocket
20 February 1947
First animals in space (fruit flies)
United States
V-2
21 August 1957
First intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM)
USSR
R-7 Semyorka/
SS-6 Sapwood
4 October 1957
First artificial satellite
First signals from space
USSR
Sputnik 1
3 November 1957
First animal in orbit, the dog Laika
USSR
Sputnik 2
2 January 1959
First firing of a rocket in Earth orbit
First reaching Earth escape velocity or Trans Lunar Injection
First detection of solar wind
USSR
Luna 1
7 August 1959
First photograph of Earth from orbit
USA (NASA)
Explorer 6
13 September 1959
First impact into another world (the Moon)
First delivery of national (USSR) pennants to a celestial body
USSR
Luna 2
4 October 1959
First photos of far side of the Moon
USSR
Luna 3
19 August 1960
First plants and animals to return alive from Earth orbit
USSR
Sputnik 5
31 January 1961
First Hominidae in space, first tasks performed in space; Ham (chimpanzee).
USA (NASA)
M-R 2
12 April 1961
First human spaceflight–(Yuri Gagarin)
First human-crewed orbital flight
USSR
Vostok 1
16 June 1963
First woman in space (Valentina Tereshkova)
USSR
Vostok 6
19 July 1963
First reusable crewed spacecraft (suborbital)
USA (NASA)
X-15 Flight 90
3 February 1966
First soft landing on another world (the Moon)
First photos from another world
USSR
Luna 9
1 March 1966
First impact into another planet (Venus)
USSR
Venera 3
3 April 1966
First artificial satellite around another world (the Moon)
USSR
Luna 10
2 June 1966
Soft landingon the Moon, photos from the Moon
USA (NASA)
Surveyor 1
21 July 1969
First human on the Moon and first space launch from a celestial body
USA (NASA)
Apollo 11
23 November 1970
First lunar rover
USSR
Lunokhod 1
12 December 1970
First X-ray orbital observatory
USA (NASA)
Uhuru(satellite)
15 December 1970
First soft landing on another planet (Venus)
First signals from another planet
USSR
Venera 7
23 April 1971
First space station
USSR
Salyut 1
June, 1971
First Manned orbital observatory
USSR
Orion 1
14 November 1971
First to maintain orbit around another planet (Mars)
USA (NASA)
Mariner 9
27 November 1971
First impact into Mars
USSR
Mars 2
2 December 1971
First soft Mars landing
First signals from Mars surface
USSR
Mars 3
3 March 1972
First human made object sent on escape trajectory away from the Sun
USA (NASA)
Pioneer 10
15 July 1972
First mission to enter the asteroid belt and leave inner Solar System
USA (NASA)
Pioneer 10
15 November 1972
First orbital gamma ray observatory
USA (NASA)
SAS 2
15 July 1975
First multinational manned mission
USSR
USA (NASA)
Apollo-Soyuz Test Project
20 July 1976
First photos and soil samples from the surface of Mars
USA (NASA)
Viking Lander
12 April 1981
First Reusable manned spacecraft (orbital)
USA (NASA)
STS-1
1 March 1982
First Venus soil samples & sound recording of another world
USSR
Venera 13
25 January 1983
First Infrared orbital observatory
USA (NASA)
UK (SERC)
Netherlands (NIVR)
IRAS
13 June 1983
First spacecraft beyond the orbit of Neptune (first spacecraft to pass beyond all Solar System planets)
USA (NASA)
Pioneer 10
7 February 1984
First untethered spacewalk, Bruce McCandless II
USA (NASA)
STS-41-B
24 January 1986
First Uranus flyby (closest approach 81,500 kilometres)
USA (NASA)
Voyager 2
19 February 1986
First consistently inhabited long-term research space station
USSR
Mir
25 August 1989
First Neptune flyby (closest approach at 29,240 km)
USA (NASA)
Voyager 2
18 November 1989
First orbital cosmic microwave observatory
USA (NASA)
COBE
14 February 1990
First photograph of the whole Solar System
USA (NASA)
Voyager 1
24 April 1990
Optical orbital observatory
USA (NASA)
ESA
Hubble Space Telescope
22 March 1995
Record longest duration spaceflight (437.7 days) set by Valeri Polyakov
Russia (FKA)
Mir
7 December 1995
First orbit of Jupiter
USA (NASA)
Galileo
7 December 1995
First mission into the atmosphere of a gas giant (Jupiter)
USA (NASA)
Galileo’s atmospheric entry probe
12 February 1997
First orbital radio observatory
Japan (ISAS)
HALCA
4 July 1997
First operational rover on another planet (Mars)
USA (NASA)
Mars Pathfinder
20 November 1998
First multinational space station,
Largest man-made object built in space to date
Russia(FKA)
USA (NASA)
Europe (ESA)
Japan (JAXA)
Canada (CSA)
International Space Station
14 February 2000
First orbiting of an asteroid (433 Eros)
USA (NASA)
ESA
NEAR Shoemaker
12 February 2001
First landing on an asteroid (433 Eros)
USA (NASA)
NEAR Shoemaker
1 July 2004
First orbit of Saturn
USA (NASA)
ESA
Italy (ASI)
Cassini–Huygens
19 November 2005
First asteroid ascent (25143 Itokawa).
First interplanetary escape without undercarriage cut-off.
Japan (JAXA)
Hayabusa
15 January 2006
First sample return from comet (81P/Wild)
USA (NASA)
Stardust
6 March 2009
Kepler Mission is launched, first space telescope designated to search for Earth-like exoplanets
USA (NASA)
Kepler Mission
13 June 2010
First sample return from asteroid (25143 Itokawa)
Japan (JAXA)
Hayabusa
18 March 2011
First orbit of Mercury
USA (NASA)
MESSENGER
25 August 2012
First manmade probe in interstellar space.
USA (NASA)
Voyager 1
12 November 2014
First man-made probe to make a planned and soft landing on a comet (67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko).
ESA
Rosetta

 

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