Established on April 1, 1935, in accordance with the provision of the Reserve Bank India Act, 1934. Its central office remained at Mumbai since inception. Though originally privately owned, since nationalization in 1949 fully owned by the Government of India.
The preamble prescribes the objective as
“To regulate the issue of bank notes and keeping of reserves with a view to securing monetary stability in India and generally to operated the currency and credit system of the country to its advantage.”
Central board of RBI
1. Appointed/nominated by the central Government for a period of 4 years.
2. Constitution: Official Directors:
Full-Time Directors: Governor and not more than four deputy governors.
Non-official Directors: Nominated by Government, Ten directors from various field and one government official.
Others: Four Directors – one each from four local boards.
Functions: General superintendent and directions of the Bank’s affairs.
- One each of the four regions of the country in Mumbai, Calcutta (Kolkata), Chennai and New Delhi.
- Membership: Consists of 5 members each appointed by the central government for a term of 4 years.
- Functions: To advice the Central board on local matters and to represent territorial and economic interests of local co-operative and indigenous banks: to perform such other functions as delegated by Central board from time to time.
1. Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934: Governs the Reserve Bank functions.
2. Banking Regulation Act, 1949: Governs the financial sector.
Acts governing specific functions
- Public debt act, 1944/Government Security Act (proposed): Governs government debt market.
- Securities Contract (Regulation) Act, 1956: Regulates government security market.
- Indian Coinage Act, 1906: Governs currency and coins,
- Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973/Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999: Governs foreign exchange market.
Acts governing Banking operations
- Companies Act, 1956: Governs bank as companies.
- Banking companies (acquisition and transfer of undertakings) Act 1970/1980 Relates to the nationalization of banks.
- Banker’s Books Evidence Act
- Banking Secrecy Act
- Negotiable instruments Act, 1881
Acts Governing Individual Institutions
1. State Bank of India Act, 1954
2. Industrial Development Bank of India
3. National Bank for Agriculture rural development ACT
4. National Housing Bank Act
5. Deposit insurance and credit guarantee Cooperation
Also Read: Foreign Trade
Monetary Authority of RBI
1. Formulates, implements and monitor the monetary policy.
2. Objective: Maintaining price stability and ensuring adequate flow of credit to the productive sector.
Manager of Exchange control
1. Manages the foreign exchange management act, 1999.
2. Objective: To facilitate external trade and payment and promote orderly development and maintenance of foreign exchange market in India.
Issue of Currency
- Issues and exchange or destroys currency and coins not fit for circulation.
- Objective: to give the public adequate quantity of supplies of currency notes and coins in good quantity.
Also Read: Governors of Reserve Bank of India