Following are the climatic regions of India.
Tropical Rain Forest:
- This type of climate is found on the west coastal plain and Sahyadris and in parts of Assam
- The temperatures are high, not falling below 18.2 degree-c even during winter and rising to 29 degrees C in April and May, the hottest months.
- Dense, forests and plantation agriculture with crops like tea, coffee and spices are the characteristics vegetation in the area.
- Most of the peninsula, except the semi-arid zone in the lee side of the Sahyadris, experiences this type of climate.
- A long dry weather lasting through winter and early summer and high temperature remaining above 18.2 degrees C even during the winter seasons and rising as high as 32 degrees C in summer are the chief characteristics of this climate.
- Nagpur has a mean temperature of 35.4 degrees C for May which is the hottest month and 20.7 degrees C for December the coldest month in the year.
- The natural vegetation all over the area is savanna.
Tropical Semi-Arid Steppe Climate:
- The rain-shadow belt, running southward from central Maharashtra to Tamil Nadu, in the lee side of the Sahyadris and Cardamom Hills come under this type of climate of low and uncertain rainfall.
- Temperature varying from 20 degrees C to 23.8 degrees C for December and 32.8 degrees C for May. Agriculturally, the climate is suitable only for dry farming and livestock rearing.
Tropical and Sub-Tropical Steppe
- This type of climate occurs over a broad crescent from Punjab to Kachchh between the Thar Desert to its west and the more humid climates of the Ganga Plain and the Peninsula to its east and south respectively.
- The climate, therefore, is transitional between these two areas. The annual rainfall is not only low but it is also highly erratic.
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- The western part of Barmer, Jaisalmer and Bikaner districts of Rajasthan and most of the part of Kachchh form the sandy wastes of the Thar which experiences a typical desert climate.
- Ganganagar has recorded a maximum temperature of 50 degrees C, the highest record.
Humid Sub-Tropical With Winter
- A large area to the south of the Himalayas, east of the tropical and sub-tropical steppe and north of the tropical savanna running in a long belt from Punjab to Assam with a south-westward extension into Rajasthan east of the Aravalli Range, has this type of climate.
- Winters are dry except for a little rain received from the westerly depressions.
- The Himalayan and Karakoram ranges experience this type of climate with sharp contrasts between the temperatures of the sunny and shady slopes, the high diurnal range of temperatures and high variability of rainfall.
- The trans-Himalayan region, Ladakh, where the south-west monsoon fails to reach, has a dry and cold climate and a spare and stunned vegetation.
Drought in India:
- The dry areas of Rajasthan and the adjoining part of Haryana and Gujarat are liable to frequent drought conditions.
- Another area liable to frequent drought lies on the leeward side of the western Ghats.