The Ganges is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through India and Bangladesh. The 2,525 km (1569 miles) river rises in the western Himalayas in the Indian state of Uttarakhand and flows south and east through the Gangetic Plain of North India into Bangladesh, where it empties into the Bay of Bengal.The Ganga river has been declared as India’s National River.
The Ganges rises in the southern Himalayas on the Indian side of the border with the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. The Ganges begins at the confluence of the Bhagirathi and Alaknanda rivers at Devprayag. Ganga’s five headstreams—the Bhagirathi, Alaknanda, Mandakini, Dhauliganga, and Pindar—all rise in the northern mountainous region of Uttarakhand state. The five confluences, known as the Panch Prayag, are all along the Alaknanda.
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The place, where Bhagirathi flows out from Gangotri, it called “Goumukh”.
Ganga is the third largest river by discharge. The Ganges is the most sacred river to Hindus. It is also a lifeline to millions of Indians who live along its course and depend on it for their daily needs. It is worshipped as the goddess Ganga.
The Ganges River emerges from the Himalayas at the town of Rishikesh where it begins to flow onto the Indo-Gangetic Plain. The Indo-Gangetic Plain is geologically known as a foredeep or foreland basin.
Many Hindus visit the Ganges River in Varanasi as that city is considered the holiest of cities.Haridwar and Allahabad or Prayag are also on the banks of Ganga. These Two Cities are famous for Kumbh Mela festival. Kumbh Mela is one of the world’s largest human gatherings on planet Earth.
Illegal mining in the Ganges river bed for stones and sand for construction work has been a long problem in Haridwar district, Uttarakhand, where it touches the plains for the first time.
India is one of the most polluted rivers in the world. Pollution of the Ganges is caused by both human and industrial waste due to India’s rapid growth as well as religious events. Raw sewage is dumped into the river. In addition, many people bathe and use the river to clean their laundry.
The incidence of water-borne and enteric diseases – such as gastrointestinal disease, cholera, dysentery, hepatitis A and typhoid – among people who use the river’s waters for bathing, washing dishes and brushing teeth is high, at an estimated 66% per year.
The Ganga Action Plan, an environmental initiative that was “the largest single attempt to clean up a polluted river anywhere in the world.” The Ganga Action Plan has been described variously as a “failure,” a “major failure”.
The failure of the Ganga Action Plan has also been variously attributed to “environmental planning without proper understanding of the human–environment interactions,” Indian “traditions and beliefs, corruption and a lack of technical knowledge” and “lack of support from religious authorities.”
‘Namami Gange Programme’, is an Integrated Conservation Mission, approved as ‘Flagship Programme’ by the Union Government in June 2014 with a budget outlay of Rs.20,000 Crore to accomplish the twin objectives of effective abatement of pollution, conservation, and rejuvenation of National River Ganga.
Major Components of Main pillars of Namami Gange
Sewerage Treatment Infrastructure
Industrial Effluent Monitoring