Constitutional Development in India – From Regulating Act 1773 to Govt. of India Act 1935

Regulating Act, 1773

  • End of Dual Government.
  • Governor of Bengal to be the Governor- General of British territories of India.
  • Established of Supreme Court in Calcutta

Pitts Act of 1784

  • This Act gave the British Government a measure of control over the company’s affairs. In fact, the company became a subordinate department of the State.

Act of 1786

  • Governor General given the power to over-ride the Council and was made the Commander-in-chief also.

Also Read: The Constitution of India – Drafting and Composition

Charter Act of 1793

  • Company given monopoly of trade for 20 more years. It laid the foundation of Government by written laws, interpreted by courts.

Charter Act 1813

  • Company deprived of its trade monopoly in India except in tea and trade with China.

Charter Act of 1833

  • End of company’s monopoly even in tea and trade with China. Company was asked to close its business at the earliest.
  • Governor General of Bengal to be Governor General of India. (1st Governor General of India was Lord William Bentinck).

Charter Act 1853

  • The Act renewed the powers of the company and allowed it to retain the possession of Indian territoris in trust of the British crown.
  • Recruitment to Civil Service was based on open annual competition examination (excluding Indian ).

Government of India Act, 1858

  • Rule of Company in India ended that of the crown began.
  • A post of Secretary of State (a member of the British Cabinet) for India . He was assisted bya 15-member council (called India Council). He was to exercise the powers of the Crown.
  • Secretory of state Governed India through the Governor General.
  • Governor General received the title of Viceroy. He represented Secretory of State and was assisted by an executives Council, which consisted of high officials of the Government.

Also Read: Constitution of India – Brief Introduction

Indian Council Act, 1861

  • The executive Council was now to be called Central Legislative Council.

Indian Council Act, 1892

  • Indians found their way in the provincial Legislative Council.

Indian Council Act, 1909 or Morley-Minto Reform

  • It envisaged a separate electorate for Muslims.

Government of India Act, 1919 or Montague-Chelmsford Reforms

  • Dyarchy system introduced in the provinces.
  • The Provincial subjects of administration were to be divided into two categories : Transferred and Reserved .
  • The Transferred subjects were to be administered by the Governor with the aid of ministers responsible to the Legislative Council.
  • The Governor and the Executive Council were to administer the reserved subjects without any responsibility to the legislature.
  • Indian legislature became bicameral for the first time. It actually happened after 1935 Act.

Government of India Act, 1935

  • Provided for the establishment of all-India Federation consisting of the British Provincially and the Princely States.
  • The joining of Princely States was voluntary and as a result the Federation did not come into existence.
  • Dyarchy was introduce at the Centre (e.g., Department of Foreign Affairs and Defence were reserved for the Governor General).
  • Provincial autonomy replaced Dyarchy in provinces. They were grants separate legal identity. Burma (now Myanmar) separated from India.

Also Read: 20 Features of Indian Constitution

Recent Articles

Open Skies Treaty and US exit – All you need to know

What is Open Skies Treaty?Open Skies Treaty is an accord among 34 member nations, it allows participants to...

The Rig Veda Age : Religion and Philosophy

The socio-economic life, that project simplicity, of Vedic Aryans was quite opposite to the religious aspect, that was highly ritualized, of their...

Neighbouring Countries of India

AfghanistanAfghanistan is a landlocked country that is located approximately in the centre of Asia. It is bordered by...

Inventions That Changed the World

“Nothing is permanent except a change.” You might have come across this quotation more than once in your lifetime. Here is the list of...

Industries Contributing to Indian Economy

The Indian Economy is the 9th largest economy of the world and also one of the fastest growing world economies. The most top industries...

Related Stories

8 Comments

  1. Why it is silent on historic Poona Pact, 1930, between Dr. B.R. Ambedkar,MMK Gandhi,representing the Congres & Muslim League represented by MA Jinnah. This pact remains out of most syllabi. This is more relevant in today’s perspective.

Comments are closed.

Stay on top - Get the daily news in your inbox