Human rights refer to those basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled, right to life and liberty, freedom of expression equality before law etc are some of these rights. The Magna Carta is an English charter of 1215 is one of the worlds first documents to contain human rights.
In the modern history the Geneva conventions which came into being between 1864 and 1949 as a result of efforts by Henry Dunant, the founder of the International Committee on the Red Cross is the first at-tempt to recognize and safeguard the human rights of the International Community.
The United Nations organisation was established on 24 October 1945. Immediately after its establishment
1215 – Magna Carta, world first document to con tain Human Rights.
1864-1949 – Genevral Convention on Human Rights.
1948 – Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
1948 – United Nations Commission on Human Rights was set up.
2005 – United Nations Human Rights Commission was founded.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a non-binding declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948. UDHR urges member nations to promote a number of human, civil, economic and social rights.
The Commission on Human Rights had drafted the International Bill of Human Rights and it was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 December 1948 as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
10 December is globally celebrated as Human Rights Day.
The United Nations Human Rights Council was founded in 2005. It was founded to replace the United Nations Commission on Human Rights.
- UNHRC is a subsidiary body of the United Nations General Assembly and reports directly to it.
- UNHRC has fifty-three members out of total members of the United Nations General Assembly. Its members are elected by simple majority in a secret ballot of the United Nations General Assembly. Its Members are elected for the term of six years.
- UNHRC has its headquarter at Geneva.
- UNHRC can appoint independent experts to investigate alleged human rights abuses and to provide the council reports.
- UNHRC may request that the Security Council take action when human right violations occurs, this action may be direct action, or may involve sanctions and Security Council may also refer cases to the International Criminal Court (ICC).
- Besides UNHRC. Amnesty International and Red Cross Society also works for the protection and pro-motion of human rights internationally.