India Under Viceroys

Lord Canning (1858-1862)

  • Lord Canning was made the first Viceroy of India.
  • 5% income tax was imposed on all are links beyond Rs. 500 a year.
  • High courts were set up at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras under the provisions of the Indian High Courts act of 1861.

Lord Elgin Ist (1861-1863)

The most important event of his time over the suppression of the Wahabi tribe of the fanatic Muslims inhabiting the North West Frontier.

Read Also: Governor Generals and Viceroys of India

Lord John Lawrence (1864-1869)

  • An important event of this time was the war against Bhutan in 1865.
  • The Punjab and Oudh Tenancy Act, 1860, was enacted.
  • Two famines hit India; first in 1800 in Orrisa and second in 1868-69 in Bundelkhand and Rajputana.
  • A Famine Commission was set up under the chairmanship of Sir Henry Campbell .

Lord Mayo (1869-1872)

  • For the first time in my Indian history census was held in 1871.
  • The college was set up and Ajmer to impart suitable education to the sons of the Indian princess. Subsequently, this college came to known as the ‘Mayo College”.

Lord Northbrook (1872-1876)

  •  deposition of Gaekwad in 1874;
  • the Kuka movement;
  • visit of Prince of Wales;
  • abolition of income tax;
  • famine in Bihar and Bengal in 1873-1874.


Lord Lytton (1876-1880)

  • Statutory Civil Service in 1879.
  • It was also laid down that the candidates had to appear and pass the civil services examination which began to be held in England.
  • The maximum age for these candidates was reduced from 21 to 19 years.

Lord Ripon (1880-1884)

  • Resolution in 1882 for the institution of local self-government in India.
  • Constitution of the Hunter commission on education (1882).
  • The maximum age of admission to civil services raised to 21.

Lord Dufferin (1884-1888)

His period witnessed the third Anglo-Burmese war which led to the accession of upper Burma.

Lord Lansdowne (1888-1894)

  • enactment of second factory act;
  • demarcation of the Indo-Afghan border (Durand Line);
  • Second Indian council Act (1892).

Don’t Miss: BRITISH RULE-LORD IRWIN (1926-31)

Lord Elgin II (1894-1899)

The bubonic plague in Bombay in 1896 and severe draught in Bikaner and Hissar district were some of the important events of his period.

Lord Curzon (1899-1905)

  • The Punjab Land Alienation Act of 1900, prohibited the sale of agricultural lands for its attachment in execution of a decree
  • In order to preserve and protect ancient monuments of India, he passed the Ancient Monuments Protection Act, and Archaeological Department was established in 1901.
  • The setup of Police Commission under the Chairmanship of Sir Andrew Frazer in 1902.
  • A Criminal Investigation Department was opened in each district. In 1901 the Imperial Cadet Corps was set up.

Lord Minto II (1905-1910)

His stint as viceroy is famous for the Minto-Morley Reforms of 1909 which provided for the separate electorate to Muslims.

Lord Hardinge II (1910-1916)

  • In 1911 the capital of the country was announced to be shifted from Calcutta to Delhi.
  • In 1912, Delhi became the new capital.
  • The First World War broke out in 1914.
  • In 1916, Lord Hardinge laid the foundation of the Benaras Hindu University. Madan Mohan Malaviya was the Founder-Chancellor of this university.

Lord Chelmsford (1916-1921)

  • Enactment of the Government of India, 1919 (Montague-Chelmsford Reforms) which introduced dyarchy in the provinces;
  • enactment of Rowlatt Act (1919);
  • the Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy (1919);
  • and the beginning of the Non-cooperation Movement


Lord Reading (1921-26)

Held of the Non-Corporation Movement (1922); arrival of the Prince of Wales (1921); and the outbreak of the Moplah Revolt (1921) was some of the events of his period.

Lord Irwin (1926-31)

  • Appointment of Simon commission in 1928.
  • Passing of the resolution for complete independence (purna smarajya)in 1929.
  • Launching of the civil Disobedience movement.
  • Gandhi-Irwin Pact in 1931;

Lord Willingdon (1931-1936)

  • The second Around Table Conference, 1931 ;
  • Restarting of the Disobedience Movement, 1931
  • Third Round Table Conference, 1932
  • The Government of India Of 1935;

Lord Linlithgow (1936-44)

  • Longest reign as viceroy of India
  • Beginning of the Second World War.
  • Coming into force of the Government of India Act 1935 with provinces going to elections.
  • Beginning of the Quit India Movement

Lord Wavell (1944-1947)

  • His period is famous for the Shimla conference, 1945;
  • The arrival of the Cabinet Mission, 1946;
  • the Constituent Assembly boycotted by the Muslim League which launched the heinous “Direct Action Day” on August 16, 1946;
  • the Interim Government under Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru’s leadership

Lord Mountbatten, (March 1947-June 1948)

  • Declaration of third June 1947;
  • Indian Independence Act, Partition of the country between two independent states of India and Pakistan with Lord Mountbatten and Mr. M.A. Jinnah as their respective Governor generals.

Must Read:

The Mountbatten Plan


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