This rare documentary having original video clips from 1947. These rare videos and narrations of Indian Independence were taken from different sources and compiled beautifully into in mini documentary which explains the situation at the time of independence.
“Nothing is permanent except a change.” You might have come across this quotation more than once in your lifetime. Here is the list of inventions that changed the world.
Inventions That Changed the World
Aluminium. (1880) Aluminium is one of the most abundant metals. But, it was only in the 1880s that production processes were invented which enabled aluminium to be produced cheaply. Carl Wilhelm Siemens (US) developed a smelter to produce Aluminium from Bauxite ore in 1886. Aluminium is used extensively in building and aeroplane manufacture.
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Aeroplane / aviation (1903) The first powered, heavier than air flight was undertaken by Orville Wright Brothers on December 17, 1903. The first aeroplane was made of wood. By 1909, they made a demonstration of flight around the Hudson River in New York. Aeroplane technology rapidly improved, and they were used for military means in the First World War.
Antiseptics (1850) Dr Semmelwe is a Hungarian physician was the first prominent doctor to make a strong link between the use of antiseptics and improving survival rates from women giving birth. His work was taken up by others, such as Joseph Lister who became a pioneer of antiseptic surgery.
Archimedes Screw (3rd Century BC). Invented by Archimedes of Syracuse, this innovative design enabled water to be pulled uphill against gravity.
Atomic Bomb (1939-1945) Between this period a team of scientists developed the first atomic bomb as part of the Manhattan project. Chief of the project was Robert Oppenheimer. Albert Einstein’s letter in 1939 warning that the Nazi’s were developing a bomb, were important in creating an impetus for the project.
Barbed wire (1867) The first patent for barbed wire was awarded to Lucien B. Smith. Barbed wire became a very cheap way of creating an effective barrier. Initially used in agriculture to keep animals in certain areas. It became widely used for military purposes.
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Battery (1800) Voltaic Pile. Alessandro Volta an Italian physicist developed the first battery which gave a steady current using alternative layers of copper and zinc. Lew Urry developed the small alkaline battery in 1949
Bicycle (1839) Kirkpatrick MacMillan, a Scottish blacksmith his said to have developed the first two-wheeled pedal-powered a bicycle. In the 1860s, the Michaux or ‘boneshaker’ improved on this design and started in a boom in bicycle use.
Camera (1839) Another Inventions That Changed the World was of Louis Daguerre a French innovator spent many years developing the process of photography. In 1839, he made the first camera which enables a permanent photograph to be taken. In 1889, George Eastman invented the flexible role of a film which enabled photography to be much more practical.
Computer (1940-45) Charles Babbage was considered the father of computers for his work on mechanical computation devices. But, it was only in the 1940s that the first electronic computers were produced. For example, Howard Aiken & Grace Hopper developed the Harvard Mark I computer in 1944.
Clocks (1656) Christian Huygens developed the pendulum which made primitive clocks more accurate.
Concrete (1824) English inventor, Joseph Aspdin developed hydraulic cement, which used a mix of limestone, clay and aggregate.
Electricity (1832) Michael Faraday (England) and Joseph Henry (US) both built models of electricity generators. Nikola Tesla developed the first AC electricity generator in 1892
Have a look at: Timeline of Scientists of Scientific Revolution
Email (1971) Ray Tomlinson (US) developed the first electronic communication message. The email was sent between two computers on the same network.
Film (1895) Frenchman Louis Lumiere developed one of the first moving film recorders, which they called Cinematography.
Guns The first gun prototypes using gunpowder to launch missiles were developed in the tenth Century by the Chinese. The first rifle ‘Puckle Gun’ was developed in 1718 and the first revolver ‘The Colt’ in 1836.
Internet (1982) Another interesting Inventions That Changed the World was the first internet protocol was established in 1982. In 1995, the internet was de commercialised. In 1990, Tim Berners-Lee developed the World Wide Web the first internet web browser.
Matches (1826) John Walker (English) developed the first friction match which could be lit by striking sandpaper. The first safety match originated in 1844 by the Swede Gustaf Erik Pasch.
Motor car (1886) Carl Benz (Germany) is credited with the first patent for the modern motor car with a petrol combustion engine. Many similar designs were developed around the same time.
Pasteurisation . Invented by Italian Lazzaro Spallanzani, in 1768 – a process of killing bacteria in food. Louis Pasteur (1864) developed a more modern form of pasteurisation which helped make milk and wine safer to drink.
Penicillin (1928) Discovered by Alexander Fleming (Scot). who found the growth of penicillin on a jar of mould left overnight. Penicillin was later mass produced by Howard Florey (Aus) and a team of scientists enabling it to be used during the Second World War .
Petrol (1859) Edwin Drake (US) Modern drilling and refinement of oil into petrol began around the middle of Nineteenth Century. It enabled petrol to be used as a fuel in the internal combustion engine.
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Plastic (1862) Alexander Parkes (England) Parkes demonstrated a plastic which was made from heated cellulose and moulded into a shape. Other important developments include 1908 – Cellophane – Jacques E. Brandenberger
Printing Press (1450) Next Inventions That Changed the World was the first printing press was designed by Johannes Gutenberg in Germany. The printing press played a key role in the reformation of Martin Luther – as pamphlets and books were mass produced for the first time – showing the power of the printing presses.
Radio (1895) G.Marconi (Italy) sent and received the first radio waves in 1895. Nikola Tesla took out the first patent for radio using his Tesla’s coil.
Railways (1830) The first railways originated in England and they played a key role in the industrial revolution – helping with the transfer of goods and people. For the first time, people could travel across the country in less than a day. George Stephenson built the first inter-city railway between Liverpool and Manchester in 1830
Refrigerators (1748) -William Cullen (Scotland) Cullen displayed the first successful refrigeration at the University of Glasgow. Fridges use rapid cooling of gases as the main source of their artificial cooling effect. In 1805 Oliver Evans (US) invented the first refrigerator machine.
Stamps (1837) Rowland Hill proposed the first stamp as a way to offer cheap postal delivery. His proposals led to a universal postage system and the introduction of the first stamp – The Penny Black.
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Steam Engines (1968) Thomas Savery developed first crude pressure cook style steam engine. Thomas Newcomen (1712) significantly developed this with an atmospheric steam engine (pumping steam into a cylinder) James Watt (1765) improved this with a condenser that could cool while the cylinder was hot. Watt’s steam engine became dominant design of industrial revolution
Telephone (1880s) Graham Alexander Bell (Scotland) Antonio Meucci (US) Both inventors have a claim for inventing the telephone – ability to speak to someone at a significant distance.
Television (1925) Many people contributed to the development of the TV. But, John Logie Baird is credited with displaying one of the first moving images on a TV screen. Logie made use of a Nipkow disc and a Cathode Ray tube.
Thermometer (17th Century) Galileo Galilei (Italy) claimed the Inventions That Changed the World of a thermoscope which showed changes in temperature as liquid expanded and contracted. Many other scientists contributed to the development of the thermometer (G.Bianci, Robert Fludd)
Tyres (1890) The pneumatic tyre was developed by John Boyd Dunlop in the 1880s. This helped to revolutionise transport – especially for the bicycle and motor car. The pneumatic tyre had an inner tube of air to help give a more comfortable ride than the solid tyres.
Water Wheel (4000BC) The water wheel was one of the first human Inventions That Changed the World to capture the mechanical energy and was used to help grind corn. In modern times, the water wheel was improved to drive an hydraulic turbine.
Wheel (4th millennium BC) The wheel is perhaps the oldest Inventions That Changed the World, and no-one is exactly certain when it was invented, but emerged in different regions independently. It enabled quicker transportation by chariots and pack drawn animal carriages.
X-Rays (1903) The use of X-Rays were pioneered by William Coolidge who invented the Coolidge tube. Marie Curie’s work on radiology enabled a big advance in X-ray technology and it was used in the First World War.
It was none other than the Sultan who headed the administrative System during the Delhi Sultanate; and in discharging his duties was supported by various nobles. Although there was, theoretically, a Council of Ministers Majlisi-Khalwat, there were various other offices along with the office of the Sultan to help the him.
In the administrative system of the Delhi Sultanate the central figure was the Sultan. As the head of the civil administration and Supreme Commander of the army he made all appointments and promotions; and not only this he also had the authority to remove anyone from the service. As the head of the judiciary he also used to cater titles and honours to people. However, apart from the fact that the Sultan had absolute power in his hand, he was always under pressure from the powerful group of nobility and Ulema.
Sultans of Delhi, specially the powerful ones, chose various strategies to keep the powerful groups of nobles under control. In this context the name of Balban crops up quite naturally because he was the first Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate who brought the Sultanate firmly under his control. Thus in the administrative system of the Sultanate, the personality of the Sultan was very significant because under the strong and capable Sultans the administration and the administrative system functioned well and smoothly but inefficient Sultans felt the heat and pressure of the nobility.
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As the most important functionaries of the States, the nobles enjoyed high social status. Their importance remained in the fact that in the initial stage they were those commanders who came victorious army. Over a period of time the descendants of these nobles composed the main strength and some Indian groups emerged.
With the enlargement of the Delhi Sultanate there were ,on the part of different sections of the society, also attempts to join nobility. Initially it was only Turks who had the monopoly in joining the nobility. It was during the rule of Khalji and Tughlags that the doors of the nobility were opened to people of diverse backgrounds.
The low caste people, both Hindus and Muslims, joined the nobility and could rise to high positions, especially under Muhammad bin Tughlaq. During Lodi period of the Delhi Sultanate the Afghan concept of equality became important when the Sultan was accepted as “first among equals.” In this way the nobles enjoyed almost equal status with the Sultan.
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The term Ulema refers to the religious intellectual group of Muslims. The main work of the people of this group, Ulema, was to manage religious matters and interpret religious regulations for Sultan. At various levels they also worked as qazis as they were also incharge of judicial matters. As a group it was quite influential and commanded respect of Sultan and nobility.
Ulema was such a powerful group that it used to exert pressure on the Sultan to run the Sultanate as a whole as per the Islamic religious laws. However, in general the Sultan and nobles tried to run the administrative affairs according to the need of state rather than religious laws. In this context, the name of Alauddin Khalji must be mentioned because he was so courageous a Sultan who had the gumption of ignoring the opinions of Ulema in the matters involving State administration.
Central Administration of the Delhi Sultanate
Diwan-i-Wizarat, the most important office after Sultan in the hierarchy of the administrative system of the Delhi Sultanate, was headed by Wazir: his was a key position in the royal court as he was one of the four important department heads. Apart from being the Chief advisor of the Sultan the main functions of the Wazir were to look after the financial organization of the State, give advice to the Sultan and on some occasions to lead military expeditions at the behest of the Sultan. Wazir also supervised the payment to the army; he also kept a check on matters related to land revenue collections, maintained a record of all the income and expenditure incurred by the state, handled the charitable donations such as waqfs, Inams etc. It was also the duty of Wazir to supervise the Mint, the intelligence department, the royal buildings and other bodies which were affiliated to the royal court. In the administrative system Wazir had direct access to the Sultan and the position of the Sultan depended greatly on the Wisdom, sincerity and loyalty of the Wazir.
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The department Diwan-i-Arz, as a unit of the administrative system of the Delhi Sultanate, was set up to look after and manage the affairs of the military organization of the empire. Headed by Arz-i-Mumalik who was in charge of the administration of military affairs that included maintaining royal contingent recruiting the soldiers, ensuring the discipline and fitness of the army, inspecting the troops maintained by Iqta-holders, examining the horses and branding them with the royal insignia. It was Ariz, during the times of war, who arranged military provisions, transportation and administered the army at war, catered constant supplies and functioned as the custodian of the war booty. It was Alauddin khalji who for the first time introduced the system of Dagh (branding) and huliya (description) and cash payment to the soldiers with an aim to strengthen his control and authority over the army.
One of the most important units of the administrative system of the Delhi Sultanate, Diwan-i-Insha that was headed by Dabir-i-Khas, looked after the state correspondence. His duty was to draft and dispatch royal orders and receive reports from various officers of the State. The Dabir acted as the formal channel of communication between the central and the other regions of the empire. In fact, he was a sort of private secretary of the Sultan and was responsible for writing farmans.
One of the most important units of the administrative system of the Delhi Sultanate, the department, Diwan-i-Rasalat, dealt with the administration of justice whose head was Sadr-us-Sadr, the highest religious officer who took care of ecclesiastical affairs. It was his duty to appoint the qazis (judges) and approve many charitable grants such as wazifa, waqf, Idrar, etc.
There were a number of smaller departments, apart from the above mentioned important administrative units, at the central to assist in everyday administration of the empire. For example, Wakil-i-dar managed the general affairs of the royal household and the personal services of the Sultan. It was the duty of the Amir-i-Hajir to look after the affairs of the royal ceremonies. He, ipso fecto, acted as an intermediary between the Sultan and subordinate officials and between the Sultan and the public.
The karkhanas (the Royal workshops) had an important role to play in the administrative system of the Delhi Sultanate because the requirements of the royal houses were met through them. The Karkhanas were of two types: (i) manufactories (ii) store house. In this context the name of Firoz Tughlak automatically comes to mind because it was during his reign there were as many as 36 Karkhanas in the State. Each Karkhana was supervised by a noble with a rank of a Malik or a Khan.
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Due to her various climate conditions, India in all spheres of its life is a land of diversities that have made her culture a unique one. Being true to the nature of India, there are various kinds of classical dances (dance forms) in India.
There are principally two groups of Indian Dances: (i) Indian classical Dances and (ii) Indian Folk Dances. The classical dances of India are generally full of spiritual content whereas Folk dances are mainly representative of celebratory mood, although they are also religious and spiritual in content.
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Classical Dances of India
Indian can boast of having some of the world-famous dance forms that originated and evolved in India as she has thousands of year old tradition of classical and folk music and dances. These well-known classical dances are: Kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh; Kathakali and Mohiniattam of Kerala; Manipuri of Manipur; Odissi of Orissa; Bharatnatyam of Tamil Nadu and Kathak of Uttar Pradesh.
“Mudras” which were originally performed in temples to entertain many Gods and Goddesses, were frequently and basically used in these classical dances. The classical dances also effectively ‘discharged a unique service of carrying forward many mythological stories from generation to generation along with entertaining the audiences too. These dances slowly and steadily with times transformed into a part of ‘Natya Shashtra’ that was propounded by Rishi Bharata. He propounded it with an intention to compose and frame some rules and regulations of entertaining arts.
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One of the most popular classical dances of India, Bharatnatyam, has got more popularity in Southern Indian States of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Bharatnatyam, believed to be almost 2,000 years old, according to the trading was revealed by Lord Brahma to Bharata, the famous rishi, who condified this holy and sacred dance in a Sankrit text that is famously known as Natya Shashtra and is one of the a famous treatises on India drama.
Kuchipudi, that has got its name from the Kuchipure ‘village of Andhra Pradesh, is one of the classical dances of the South India. The story goes like this-in the seventeenth century the village Kuchipudi was presented to those Brahmins who were experts in performing dance and drama. The most striking feature feature of Kuchipudi is that it manifests scence from the Hindu Epics, legends and mythological takes through fusion of music, dance and acting. It also consists of pure dance mine and histrionics, however it is the use of speech that characterizes Kuchipudi as a dance drama.
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Kathakali, the classical dance from Kerala, literally means “story-Play” and is widely known for its heavy, elaborate makeup and colourful, fascinating costumes that have, in fact, become the most recognized icon of Kerala. Widely acclaimed as one of the most exquisite theatres of imagination and creativity- Kathakali presents themes which are taken from the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and other Hindu epics, mythologies and legends.
The name Mohiniattam, a classical dance of Kerala, has its orgin in the words “Mohini” (beautiful women) and “attam” (dance). Justifying its name, Mohiniallam dance exhibits a beautiful feminine style with surging flow of body movements. Developed in the tradition of Devdasi system in Kerala, Mohiniattam later grew as a classical dance form.
One of the most important classical dances of India, Kathak, as a dance form, originated in north India (precisely in Uttar Pradesh) and resembled with the Bharatnatyam dance. The word Kathak for the dance form is said to be derived from the word Katha (the art of story telling). There were bards or Kathakars in ancient India who used to recite mythological and religious tales blended in music, mine and dance.
One of the widely known classical India dances Odissi from the State or Orissa is highly inspired, ecstatic, passionate and sensuous form of dance. It has a history of 2000 years. Odissi, like classical dances of South India, has its origin in the devdasi tradition. Orissa has a great cultural history.
Belonging to one the six important classical dances of India, Manipur, whose style is intricately women into the life pattern of the people of Manipur, is indigenous to Manipur, the North eastern state of India. The colourful decoration, delicacy of abhinaya (drama, acting), lightness of dancing foot, tilting music and poetic charm are the most striking features of the Manipuri dance that is mostly ritualistic which extracts mainly from the rich culture of Manipur.
Indian folk dances, outcome of various and different socio-economic set-up and traditions, are simple and are performed, essentially, to express joy. They are performed on every possible occasion, birth of a child, a wedding and festivals thus becoming an integral part of our social milieu. These dances are very simple having minimum of steps or movement. Each form of folk dances has a specific costume and rhythm. Most of the costumes used in folk dances are colourful with a lot of jewels and designed.
World War I was fought between two major alliances of countries: the Allied Powers and the Central Powers. The Central Powers began as an alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary. Later the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria became part of the Central Powers.
- Germany – Germany had the largest army and was the primary leader of the Central Powers. Germany’s military strategy at the start of the war was called the Schlieffen Plan. This plan called for the quick takeover of France and Western Europe. Then Germany could concentrate its efforts on Eastern Europe and Russia.
- Austria-Hungary – World War I essentially began when Archduke Ferdinand was assassinated. Austria-Hungary blamed the assassination on Serbia and subsequently invaded Serbia setting off a chain of events that resulted in the war.
- Ottoman Empire – The Ottoman Empire had strong economic ties to Germany and signed a military alliance with Germany in 1914. The entrance into the war led to the eventual downfall of the Ottoman Empire and the formation of the country of Turkey in 1923.
- Bulgaria – Bulgaria was the last major country to join the war on the side of the Central Powers in 1915. Bulgaria claimed land held by Serbia and was eager to invade Serbia as part of the war.
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- Germany: Kaiser Wilhelm II – Wilhelm II was the last Kaiser (emperor) of the German Empire. He was related to both the King of England (George V was his first cousin) and the Tsar of Russia (Nicholas II was his second cousin). His policies were largely the cause of World War I. He eventually lost the support of the army and held little power by the end of the war. He abdicated the throne in 1918 and fled the country.
- Austria-Hungary: Emperor Franz Josef – Franz Joseph ruled the Austrian Empire for 68 years. When the heir to his throne, Archduke Ferdinand, was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist, he declared war on Serbia beginning World War I. Franz Joseph died during the war in 1916 and was succeeded by Charles I.
- Ottoman Empire: Mehmed V – Mehmed V was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire during World War I. He declared war on the Allies in 1914. He died just before the end of the war in 1918.
- Bulgaria: Ferdinand I – Ferdinand I was Tsar of Bulgaria during World War I. He gave up his throne at the end of the war to his son Boris III.
Must Read: Know about World War I
- Germany – General Franz Conrad von Hotzendorf, General Erich von Falkenhayn, Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg, Helmuth von Moltke, Erich Ludendorff
- Austria-Hungary – Archduke Friedrich
- Ottoman Empire – Mustafa Kemal, Enver Pasha
Interesting Facts about the Central Powers
- The Central Powers were also known as the Quadruple Alliance.
- The name “Central Powers” comes from the location of the main countries in the alliance. They were centrally located in Europe between Russia to the east and France and Britain to the west.
- The Central Powers mobilized around 25 million soldiers. Around 3.1 million were killed in action and another 8.4 million were wounded.
- Each member of the Central Powers signed a different treaty with the Allies at the end of the war. The last, and most famous, treaty was the Treaty of Versailles signed by Germany.
Tibet, though nominally under the suzerainty of china, was practically an independent theocracy under two great Lamas – the Dalai Lama of Lhasa and Tashi Lama of the famous monastery of Tashilhunpo near Shigatse. The political power was in the hands of the Dalai Lama or the Council that ruled during Lama’s minority.
Earlier attempts to establish relations
It was in the year 1774 when the earliest attempts to set up form British relations with Tibet were made Bogla was dispatched by Warren Hastings on a mission to seek facilities for trade with Tibet.
However, in subsequent times the Tibetans started to disapprove British dealings with their country; in 1887 the Tibetans made an “inexplicable invasion” into Sikkim, the protected state, but were made to retreat the very next year by General Graham.
The provisions related to Sikkim-Tibet boundary and some commercial facilities, of the Anglo-Chinese Convention of 1890 was made more clear in 1893, but were coldly received by the Tibetans.
Lord Curzon and People of Tibet
Lord Curzon, when he arrived in India, found British relations with Tibet “at an absolute deadlock”. At this time the problem became more complicated because of two factors: on the one hand, the Dalai Lama with the help of his tutor, Dorjef, had overthrown the regency government and had been trying to establish himself as a story ruler; on the other hand, the Tibetans, in their eagerness to get rid of Chinese sovereignty were willing to welcome Russian friendship as a balance.
Dorjef, a Russian Buddhist, led Tibetan missions to Russia in 1898, 1900, and 1901, and rumours spread that he had virtually placed Tibet under the protection of Russia.
The rumours got so widespread that the Russian Government had to officially contradict this rumour and assure the British ambassador at St. Petersberg that the intention behind Dorjef missions was purely religious. However, this assurance of Russia could not slate off England’s suspicious about Russian intentions.
In 1903, Lord Curzon, in order to confront the situation, proposed to send a mission with an armed escort to Tibet; the Home Government, with some hesitation, sanctioned this mission proposed by Lord Curzon.
Under Colonel Younghusband, according to the plan, a mission started for Tibet; and after several intense encounters in the way with Tibetans, arrived at Lhasa on 3 August, 1904. After this, finally a convention was signed between Tibet and England. According to this treaty Tibetans accepted to open trade marts in Gyantse, Gartok and Yatung to play a guarantee of twenty-five lakhs and to permit English to possess the Chumbi valley for three years as a temporary pledge.
In June 1906 England and China concluded a convention in which England agreed neither to capture Tibet nor to intervene in the internal administration, in return Tibet promised English that they would not permit any other foreign power to have a say in the international administration or territorial integration of Tibet. Not only this, through this convention England was granted the power to establish telegraph lines linking the trading stations with India. The Chinese Government paid the compensation in three years and the English evacuated the Chumbic valley.
The only direct result of the Younghusband mission, the mission’s political results were not very important, was the introduction of three/trade marts and the formation of a British Trade Agent at Gyantse.
Both England and Russia, by the Anglo-Russia Convention of 1907, agreed to continue political relations with Tibet through China. This move on the part of England and Russia confirmed the suzerainty of China over Tibet which till then was a mere “Constitutional fiction” and was not explicitly reaffirmed. However, violating this convention, China in 1910 invaded Tibet and captured its whole territory. Dalai Lama took refuge in India
In order to lessen the tension caused by Tibet refusal to accept Chinese over lordship and to maintain peace along India’s northern boundary when a European war was looming on the horizon.
On 27 April ,1914 on the initiation of the British, a convention was called in Shimla in which three Governments, China, Tibet and English, took part under the terms of this tripartite convention, Tibet was separated into two zones and the suzerainty of China over these two zones was recognized.
However, China accepted to recognize the full autonomy of “Outer Tibet”; it surrounded the Indian boundary and included Lhasa, Shigatse and Chamdo, and to withdraw from all interference in its administration.
The Shimla Conference fixed the boundary between Tibet and North-eastern India from the east of Bhutan for a distance of 850 miles. This very frontier is known a Mc Mohan Line: It was Sir Henry Mc Mohan, the then secretary to the Government of India in Foreign Department, who signed the agreement on behalf of the British Government.
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