Renaissance: It is a name given to the Revival of Learning, which started in Italy in the early 14th century and slowly spread throughout Europe in the late 15th century. It was a cultural movement that affected areas, such as art, literature, education and spread of science and technology.
The Glorious Revolution: A bloodless revolution in England in 1688-89, the Glorious Revolution resulted in the overthrow of the unpopular King James II and declaration of William of Orange (a Dutch) and his wife Mary, daughter of King James as joint sovereigns of England.
The American Revolution: It is the name given to the struggle by which England’s 13 colonies in North America declared their independence. The declaration of Independence was issued on July 4, 1776. Its author was Thomas Jefferson.
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The French Revolution: It is the name given to the struggle which swept away the Old Regime in France, as well as the fundamental changes which resulted from that struggle. The immediate cause of the French Revolution was the bankrupt condition of the French Treasury under Louis XV and Louis XVI. On July 14, 1789, the revolutionaries stormed the Bastille, the state prison for political prisoners that symbolised the king’s despotism. The fall of the Bastille marked the end of the monarchy. The King was beheaded on the guillotine in 1793 on charges of treason. A new constitution was adopted in 1795.
Industrial Revolution: It donates a series of changes in the economic conditions of England in the 18th and 19thcenturies brought about the invention of various kinds of machines that could be used for the industrial progress of the country, such as steam engine, spinning and weaving machines; the industrial revolution took place not only in England but also in other West European countries and the USA.
Russian Revolution: It was one of the most significant events of the 20th century; main causes were: discontent towards the autocratic rule of Nicholas II, the new Czar; special privileges enjoyed by the upper class; and miserable conditions of the labourers and factory workers. The Bolsheviks, led by Lenin, seized powers in Petrograd (now Leningrad) on November 7,1917. Nicholas II was forced to abdicate. In 1923, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) came into being.
The Hungarian Revolution of 1956: This revolution took place as a result of public discontent due to the policies of Matthias Rakosi, head of the Communist Party and the Hungarian government. The revolution witnessed large scale participation of students and workers. A new government under Janos Kadar came into being.
China’s Cultural Revolution: It occurred due to the conflict between the radicals and moderates in the Communist Party with Mao Zedong, Chairman of the Communist Party, supporting the radicals. The radicals accused the moderates of falling to follow communist principles.
Islamic Revolution in Iran: The revolution was a result of the hostility of old-fashioned religious leaders and public towards economic and social reforms introduced by Mohammad Reza Pahlevi, the last Shah of Iran. Shah’s policies led to fierce fighting and rioting which the government could not control. In February 1979, a revolutionary government took over under the leadership of Ayatollah Khomeini. Iran was proclaimed an Islamic Republic.