Athletics is also known as track and field athletics. It is a collection of sports events that involve jumping, running and throwing. In 1896, athletics was first introduced in the Olympic Games and in 1928 women were first allowed to participate in track and field events. Sprints, middle distance events, long distance events, hurdles, relays, road races, race walking are some of the running events.
Badminton is a sport that is played with racquets. Either two opposing players or two opposing pairs play this game. The court is divided by a net. The player has to hit the shuttlecock, also known as the feathered projectile with the racquets and pass it to the opponent’s side. The Badminton World Federation was established in 1934 with several founding members. In 1936, India joined as an affiliate. The nations that produces several world-class badminton players are China, Indonesia, South Korea and Malaysia.
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Basketball is a team game, in which each team consists of five players. The main objective of the game is to score points by hitting the ball and throwing it into the basket of the opposition team. Basketball was first played in America, in 1891. In 1936, this game was for the first time introduced in the Olympics, which was held in Berlin.
In India, basketball was first played in the year 1930. The first Indian Nation Championship was held in 1934 in Delhi. The main governing body of basketball in India is the Basketball Federation of India that was formed in 1950.
Billiards includes a range of cue games. These games are played on a billiards table to test the skill of hitting the billiards balls with a cue stick. Billiards is divided into three subdivisions: carom billiards, pocket billiards, and snooker. All the three games are played with same techniques but the origin and terminology of snooker are different.
In carom billiards, the player is required to hit a cue ball aiming to make contact with the rival’s cue ball. One-pocket, bank pool, eight-ball, nine-ball, and snooker are some of the pocket billiards games. In 2005, billiards was added as an event in the World Games and in 2006 billiards was given a place in the Asian Games.
Bowling is an indoor sport in which the player is supposed to roll a bowling ball through a flat surface called lane and hit objects called pins. The main objective of hitting the pins is to make points. There are various categories of bowling that includes ten-pin bowling, candlepin bowling, duckpin bowling, five-pin bowling and bumper bowling. To promote indoor sport such as bowling in India and as a family recreation activity, the Bowling and Billiards Association of India have been established.
Boxing is a sport blended with martial art. It is a combat game in which two participants of same weight fights with each other in a series of rounds of one to three minutes. The participants are called boxers. The main objective of the game is to avoid the punches of the opponents. The participant who is able to knock down the opponent is declared as the winner only if the opponent is unable to get up before the referee counts to ten.
Chess is a board game where mental skill is required to play it. It is a popular game and is played all over the world. This sport is played by two players. It is played on a square sized board on which 8 rows and 8 columns are made, giving 64 spares of alternative colours. The main objective of this game is to checkmate the king of the opposition player. Vishwanathan Anand of India is the present world champion of this game.
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Cricket is a bat and ball game played by two teams consisting of eleven players each. It is played on a flat pitch of 22 yards with two sets of three stumps on each end of the pitch. The main objective of the game is to score as many runs as possible. It is the second most popular sport in the world after football. The British were the first to introduce cricket in India. The Indian Cricket Control Board was first formed towards the end of 1928. In 1932, India played its first official and international Test match against England.
Extreme sports, also known as action sports and adventure sports are activities that are considered to have a high level of inherent danger. These sports often involve speed, height, physical exertion and spectacular stunts. In India, one can find a variety of extreme sports that are famous worldwide. Some of the adventure spots that can be enjoyed in India are cycling and motor biking in the Himalayas, mountaineering, gliding, rafting, scuba diving, skiing, trekking, skateboarding, snowboarding, and bungee jumping.
Field hockey is one of the most popular games in India. The British Regiments were the first to introduce it in India. In 1885-1886, the first hockey club was formed in Kolkata by Punjab and Mumbai. Hockey is a team game in which each team consists of 11 players including a gaol-keeper. The first hockey association founded in India was the Bengal Hockey. In 1928, India for the first time played in Olympic Games, held in Amsterdam.
Football is an outdoor game that was first introduced during the British Reign. Today, it is one of the major sports in India. It is a team game and is said to be the top sports in the states of West Bengal, Kerala, and Goa. Kolkata is considered as the home of Indian football. India was considered as an Asian powerhouse of football. India was the champion of the Asian Games in 1951 and 1962. The present governing body of the Indian football is the All India Football Federation.
Golf is an outdoor sport in which a player is required to hit a ball into a hole with lowest number of strokes. This sport is played in golf courses and several types of clubs are used to play it. Each golf course is designed in a unique form and can consist of either 9 or 18 holes. In 1456 A.D, the first game of golf was played at Bruntsfield Links, in Edinburgh, Scotland.
Ice hockey is played on ice. It is known to be one of the world’s fastest sports, with players on skates capable of going high speeds either on artificial or natural ice surfaces. In the game, two teams consisting of six players skates through the ice surface to knock a flat round puck into goal of the opponents.
A helmet, shoulder pads, elbow pads, mouth guard, protective gloves, heavily padded shorts, a ‘jock’ athletic protector, shin pads, chest protector and a neck guard are the equipments required while playing ice hockey. In 2003, the first National Ice Hockey Championship was held in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Kabaddi is a team game and is very popular among the people of Asia. Each team consist of seven players and the main objective is to score higher points by competing with the opponent team. Kabaddi involves physical strength and stamina and is a combination of rugby and wrestling. It is one among the most simple and inexpensive games that does not require a huge area or any expensive equipments.
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Kho-Kho is one of the popular traditional sports in India. It is believed by the historians that it is a modified form of ‘Run Chase’ which involves chasing and touching a player. Maharashtra is the origin of Kho-Kho. Like most of the Indian games, Kho-Kho is also enjoyable, inexpensive and simple.
To play this game two teams consisting of 9 players is required. One team chases while the other defends or runs. Each team gets 9 minutes twice to chase and defeat. The chaser has to follow the runner and touch or tag them to make them out. The game requires a ground, rectangular in shape. The only equipment required to play this game is two poles.
Lawn Tennis is a game that can be either played indoors or outdoors. It is played by two or four player on a rectangular court. Racquets is used to strike the ball back and forth across a net situated in the middle of the court. To score points, the player has to hit the ball out of the opponents reach.
Lawn tennis was first played in India in the late 19th century. In 1910, the first All Indian Championship in Tennis was held. There are several Indians who have made a mark on the tennis court. Leander Paes and Mahesh Bhupathi were the first doubles team to reach four Grand Slam finals. They have also won Wimbledon and French Open.
Rugby is a team game that descended from the common form of football that was developed in Rugby, at Rugby school. American football, rugby league, rugby union and Canadian football are some of the modern sports that are originated from rugby. British were the first to introduce rugby in India. In 1998, India first played rugby internationally. The game has now spread all over the country and has attained great popularity. Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Bangalore and Chennai are some of the main centres where rugby is played. The main governing body of rugby in India is the Indian Rugby Football Union.
Shooting is a competitive sport involving tests of accuracy and speed using various types of guns like firearms and airguns. This sport is basically categorised on the type of firearm or target used. India got the first Olympic individual silver medal in 2004. Shooting is considered as an expensive sport that can be perused only by the affluent, powerful and the talented with institutional support. In India, with the establishment of the National Rifle Association of India in 1951, the shooting sport took an organised form.
Table tennis is an indoor game played by two or four players. The players play with a ball and a small bat on a table divided by a net. This game is also known as ping-pong. India is known to be one among the countries named as the birth place of this famous sport. The Table Tennis Federation of India was formed in 1937, in Calcutta. India was a founder member of the International Table Tennis Championship as well as took part in the inaugural World championship held in London, in the year 1926. In 1952, for the first time in Asia, the World championship was held in Mumbai.
Volleyball is a team game that can be played either indoor or outdoor. Each team consist of six players. The main objective of this game is to score points by hitting a ball back and forth across a net. It is an inexpensive and popular game that can be played in all seasons. In 1958, volleyball was first introduced at the Asian Games held at Tokyo. Indian took part and gained third position. In 1960, for the first time, men’s volleyball was included as an event in the World Olympic Games. Soviet Union, Italy, Japan, Czechoslovakia, Poland and German are the countries who own the finest teams of volleyball.
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