History of India in a Nutshell

History of India can be traced back to one of the earliest civilization of the world grew on the bank of the river Indus about 5000 years ago. Agriculture and craft were the main occupation of the people of this civilization. The entire area was divided into city states and the people of these city states constantly had differences with each other.

The first outside invaders were the Aryans. Dynastic rule however started with the coming of the Mauryan dynasty. During the reign of the Mauryas, Ashoka the Great rose to power as one of the greatest emperor of that time. He had expanded and consolidated the empire of the Mauryas and brought about peace and tranquility. During his reign Buddhism spread all over the country and to other countries as well.

When the Mauryan empire fell it was succeeded by the Guptas who gave a glorious period to History of India. The advent of the Huns weakened this empire and the ruler were overthrown. Soon the turks attacked India and the following year saw the advent of Muslim rulers like Tughlaks and the Lodhis.

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It was after downfall of the Lodhis that the next great dynasty, the Mughuls gained control over the most of India in the first quarter of the 16th century. The Mughals were great conquerors, able administrators, magnificent builders, great philosopher, and lover of art. The generation of Mughal rulers included emperors like Babur, Akbar, Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb etc.

One of the wonders of the modern world, Taj Mahal, was built during this period. The most of the Mughal empire was in the Northern India.

In the south there were other Hindu Kingdoms like Cholas and the Satwahans. These kingdoms too contributed to the Indian heritage, they built some of the most magnificent temples, most of which even exist today.

The advent of Muslims in the north did have its effects on these southern states and as the number of non-Hindu rulers rose, these states were overthrown and the most of them eventually collapsed. On the southern coast Pondicherry, Calicut, Goa, etc. became major ports where large-scale trading was carried out with the Europeans. Soon the British too landed in India and established their trading centres, in the forms of The East India Trading Company, by extracting favors from the Mughal emperors over the years the British became strong and usurped powers from the Mughal rulers.

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In history of India in 1879, Queen Victoria of England became empress of the British domain in India. Close to end of 19th century resentment grew among the Indian and various attempt were made to overthrow the British rule.

In 1885, the Indian National Congress was formed to campaign for freedom. Some of the greatest freedom fighters included Mahatma Gandhi, Dadabhai Naoroji, Annie Besant, Aurobindo Ghosh, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, Lala Lajpat Rai, Maulana Azad, Jawaharlal Nehru etc.

Unfortunately religious force became active at this time and the Muslim league demanded the creation of a separate Muslim state. Despite the attempt of the father of the nation, Mahatma Gandhi, India was divided into India, and Pakistan in 1947, In history of India, it attained its independence from the Britain on 15th of August, 1947. Dr. Rajendra Prasad became the first President and the Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minister.

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The first leaders were followed by a chain of Prime Ministers and the Presidents 1968 when Indira Gandhi became the Prime Minister and she dominated the Indian since till she was assassinated in 1984, she was succeeded by her son Rajiv Gandhi who was also assassinated in 1991.

In history of India it has progress very well as an economy in all sphere in a planned manner over the decades. There were a few setbacks to which included the loss of Tibet to China, the various wars fought with Pakistan, etc. Natural calamities like floods and droughts to played havoc on many occasions.

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