The term Inter-State relations refer to the relation among different States of the Union. The cooperation and cordial relation among different state is needed for the peace and development of the country. There are certain provisions within the constitution and outside it, which aim at improving the relationship among various states of the Union. These provisions are mechanisms are given below:
- According to Article 261, full faith and credit shall be given throughout the territory of India to public acts, records and judicial proceedings of the Union and of every State.
- Provisions for resolving disputes among them through the judicial process. The Supreme Court has been given original jurisdiction with respect to the disputes arising among the States.
- For the development of Inter-State river valleys, River Valley Development Board may be established by the Centre.
- Parliament may by law establish Central Water Tribunal to resolve Inter-State Water Disputes. The Central Water Tribunal has the status of a High Court.
Inter-State Council – According to Article 263, the President can establish an Inter-State Council if public interest so requires. The Inter-State Council, if public interest so requires. The Inter-State Council shall perform the following functions –
- To esquire into disputes among the States and advise upon to resolve such disputes;
- Investigating and discussing subjects, on which some or all of the States or the Union and one or more of the States have a common interest; or
- Making recommendations upon any such subject and, in particular, recommendation for the better co-ordination of policy and action with respect to that subject.
States of the Union
The organization and process of the Inter-State-Council are to be determined by the President. The Inter-State Council was established in 1990, consisting of the Chief Ministers of the States. The effectiveness of the council depends upon the serious functioning of the Council in future. The Council will function as an advisory body. The Administrative Reforms Commission (1966-69) had the recommendation in 1969 itself for the immediate establishment of the Inter-State Council under the provisions of Article 263 of the Constitution. According to the recommendations of Commission, the council shall consist of the Prime Minister as the Chairman and Home Minister, Finance Minister, the leader of opposition in Lok Sabha and five representatives from five Zonal Councils as Members. The then Chief Minister of Kerala, E. M. S. Namboodaripad in 1968, demanded the establishment of an Inter-State Council. The immediate cause of this demand was the difference in attitude of the Union and the State of Kerala with respect to the strike of Central government employees in 1968. Rajamannar Committee constituted in 1969 by the government of Tamilnadu recommended, in 1971 the establishment of Inter-State-Council.
Zonal Councils – As provided in the State Reorganisation Act, 1956, five Zonal councils were established with a view to discussing and advising upon the matter of common interest to the State which constitutes a zone. In August 1972 North-Eastern Council was also constituted. The country is divided into six zones given below:
- (i) Central Zone
- (ii) Southern Zone
- (iii) Western Zone
- (iv) Eastern Zone
- (v) Northern Zone
- (vi) North-Eastern Council
- Coordination in the field of Inter-State Commerce and Trade – Parliament has the power to regulate the Inter-State Commerce and Trade in the larger public interest.