THE SLAVE DYNASTY (1206-90 A.D.)
On the death of Mohammed Ghori, his Governor of Indian possessions, Qutub-ud-din Aibak (1206-1 1) became the master of Hindustan and founded in 1206 his dynasty popularly known as the Slave dynasty because he was originally a slave boy purchased by Mohammed Ghori. He died in 1211 A.D.
Altamash who was one of Aibak’s governors occupied in 1210-11 the Delhi throne, ousting the successor of Aibak.
Altamash was succeeded by his daughter Raziya in 1236. She was killed in 1240 by her own brother Muiz-ud-din Bahram when she tried to recapture the Delhi throne which was usurped by him in her absence when she was out on an expedition to quell the revolt of Altuna, the governor of Sarhind. Of all the successors of Raziya Ghiyas-ud-din Balban (1266-87) was the most important. Balban’s successors being weak, the Slave dynasty was supplanted by Khilji dynasty.
Must Read: DELHI SULTANATE
KHILJI DYNASTY (1290-1320 A.D.)
Jalal-ud-din Firoz (1290-1296) captured the Delhi throne in 1290 and founded the Khilji dynasty. He was deceitfully murdered in 1296 by his nephew, Jalal-ud-din Khilji(1296-1316) who himself became the king. The Mongols who made three successive raids during his region were defeated by him. He married Kamala Devi, the queen of Rai Karandeva II of Gujarat whom he defeated. He was infatuated by the enchanting beauty of Padmini, the queen of Rana Ratan Singh of Mewar who committed Jauharto escape capture.
TUGHLAQ DYNASTY (1320-1414 A.D.)
Tughlaq dynasty was founded by Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq (1320-25 A.D.) who ascended the Delhi throne in 1320 by murdering the last Khilji Sultan. Mir Khusro was his poet laureate.
Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq was succeeded in 1325 by his son Mohammed bin Tughlaq (1325-1327) who is known for his cynicism in shifting his capital from Delhi to Devagiri (Daulatabad) and back to Delhi. Mongols who again invaded Delhi in 1328-29 were somehow driven out by the Sultan. He established diplomatic relations with China and appointed Ibn Batutah in 1342 as his ambassador to that country. Mohammed bin Tughlaq’s important successors were Firuz Shah (1351 -88), Tughlaq Shah or Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq II, and Daulat Khan who was the last ruler.
Timur’s Invasion : Timur, a Turk invaded India in 1398 during the reign of Nasir-ud-din Tughlaq. Sultan who was defeated, fled, leaving Delhi at the mercy of the invader who ravaged and plundered it and the adjoining areas. Timur soon left the country entrusting his territorial conquests to his deputy Saiyad Khizr Khan.
SAIYAD DYNASTY (1414-50 A.D.)
Timur’s deputy Khizr Khan (1414-21) ousted the then Sultan of Delhi in 1414 and founded the Saiyad dynasty. He was succeeded by three members of his family. The last of them abdicated in 1450 in favour of an Afghan noble Bahlol Lodi.
LODI DYNASTY (1450-1526 A.D.)
Bahlol Lodi (1450-88) founded the Lodi dynasty in 1450 which continued to rule till 1526.
First Battle of Panipat: It was found in 1526 between Ibrahim Lodi, the Sultan of Delhi, and Babur the ruler of Kabul who invaded India. Ibrahim Lodi was defeated and killed in action.