PHYSIOLOGY AND HEALTH -3

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Kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped glandular organs responsible for the excretion of urine, maintenance of blood reaction, water balance and concentration of blood. The excretory products formed in the body are conveyed to the kidneys where these are filtered and waste eliminated as urine.
Pancreas is the long, yellowish gland across the posterior wall of the abdomen secreting pancreatic juice which digests proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
Parathyroid glands are small endocrine glands near the thyroid glands. The hormones secreted by them regulate the ratio of calcium in blood and growth of body.

Prostate glands are the sex glands surrounding the beginning portion of urethra.
Pulmonary veins emerge out of lungs. They carry purified blood from the lungs to the left auricle from where it goes to the left ventricle.

Retina is the light-receptive layer in the eye. It is composed of rods and cones. Rods are concerned with vision in dim light, whereas cones are sensitive to colours and bright light.
Spleen is the largest lymphatic organ of the body located immediately below the diaphragm on the left side. Formation of red blood cells, storage of blood and destruction of corpuscles are some of its main functions.
Thyroid glands are the small ductless glands on either side of the windpipe in the neck. The hormones secreted by it contain 65 per cent of iodine. Its deficiency causes dwarfness in children and goitre in adults.
Veins are the blood vessels which carry blood back to heart from different parts of the body.
Ventricles are the two lower chambers of the heart from which purified blood flows out through arteries.

Vitreous humour is the transparent fluid in the posterior chamber of the eye.
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