This rare documentary having original video clips from 1947. These rare videos and narrations of Indian Independence were taken from different sources and compiled beautifully into in mini documentary which explains the situation at the time of independence.
Eutrophication is one of the several ecological problems visible on the surface of water bodies. Eutrophication is characterized by a layer of abnormally growing algae on the water surface and has several harmful effects. Before knowing about the harmful effects, one must properly know about the eutrophication process and its causes.
What is Eutrophication?
The process of eutrophication can be defined as the enrichment of water bodies by phosphorous and nitrogen nutrients. Due to the enrichment, dense algae and other floating plants like nile cabbage and water hyacinths grows abnormally on the water surface. The causes of eutrophication can be varying. Some of the most important causes of eutrophication include:
- Use of fertilizers with high concentration of nitrates and phosphates
- Discharge of nutrients by concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs)
- Directly discharging sewage and industrial wastes into the water
- Due to other natural events including sediment accumulation in the waters bodies which contribute to the explosive growth of phytoplankton and cyanobacterial blooms.
In general, human activities have sped up the process of eutrophication and have resulted in several environmental problems discussed below.
Effects of Eutrophication
Eutrophication has several harmful effects on the environment and natural life cycles of organisms. Some of the most prominent consequences of eutrophication are discussed below.
- Limits the Water Supply and Degrade the Quality
With algal blooms, the supply pipes get blocked and limit the availability of water. Also, as the algal blooms are highly toxic, the quality of water deteriorates. The growth of toxic bacteria is enhanced in anaerobic conditions which result in further deterioration of water quality.
- Poisons the Water and Threatens Life
Toxic algae and cyanobacteria release poisonous toxins in the water. This poisonous water causes fatal health hazards in humans and other animals if ingested with drinking water. Also, the high concentration of nitrogen in drinking water can cause blue baby syndrome and other severe health conditions.
- Endangers Fishes and other Aquatic animals
With the overgrowing of algae, the presence of dissolved oxygen is limited. With limited oxygen in the water bodies, other animals and plant bodies fail to get the minimum amount of oxygen required for respiration.
- Degrades Fishing Opportunities
As the water surface gets covered with dense mats of algal bloom and other floating plants, setting fishing nets becomes difficult. Also, as the water gets covered with dense plants like nile cabbage and water hyacinths, the mobility of boats and other fishing vehicles gets highly reduced.
Reducing water transparency and degrading recreational opportunities are few other important effects of eutrophication. Various efforts are already been implemented to reduce the effects of eutrophication.
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar had famously said, “A people and their religion must be judged by social standards based on social evils. No other standard would have any meaning if religion is held to be necessary good for the well-being of the people”.
What is a Social Evils or Issue
Social Evils, if defined broadly, include anything detrimental to a society or citizens such as alcohol, child abuse, prostitution, etc.
Social evils may be also referred as a social problem or a social illness or even a social conflict that indicates to an issue that influences and is opposed by a considerable number of persons within a society. It functions as a source of comprehended and perceived as a morality just in personal life or social order.
To a particular social issue, different societies have different perceptions. Anyway, social evils are issues that affect members, in one way or the other, of a particular society. In terms of moral values, almost all the time, these issues or social evils are most of the time considered controversial or problematic.
India has, in its basket, many social evil despite being an independent nation for almost 68 years now. According to some analysts, it may not be wrong to call India a world capital of social evils.
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A List of Salient Social Evils
Child Labour and Child Exploitation
It is said, and said with a profound gesture, that children are the future of any nation. Every responsible member of our society is supposed to bring up the children with tender care and love by providing them all opportunities to grow, develop and prosper.
The growth of children who are engaged in earning livelihood for themselves and their families, gets hampered. Even in their workplace, they are maltreated and exploited badly – physically, emotionally and even sexually.
Gender Inequality and Exploitation of Women
No one can deny that it is generally a male dominated world. It is a pity that in this 21st century, Indians are still orthodox and do not give equal rights to women; of course, not officially. This is done to make sure that women exploited and dominated by men.
It is said that female infanticide creates imbalance in sex ratio that is mostly responsible for increase in crime rate in India. Apart from this, female infanticide is not only an inhuman and an effort to create imbalance in human race, but also a punishable serious offence in law because it tantamount to murder.
It can only be pitied that even after 68 years of independence, women in our country, abused mentally, physically, emotionally and sexually in many families. The so-called high class and upper middle class, who boast of being well qualified and educated, are also major contributors in domestic violence.
Traditional Expensive Marriage Ceremonies
At most of the weddings, spending money lavishly has become a symbol of showing and establishing status and stature. Poor families, or the families who do not have enough money to ‘save social prestige’, take even loans to maintain expensive marriage ceremonies. Many of them fail to pay back the loans which lead to many complicated happenings.
Dowry, an ill tradition, at wedding is most of the time responsible for bride burning and other domestic violence crimes, because family from the boy side take it as their birth right, or perhaps human rights, to demand dowry. In this developed and free country one must ask the Question why should the parents of a girl give dowry at the time of marriage to the family of the bridegroom. Does a girl become a liability after marriage.
Blind Faith based on Outdated Rituals
In many parts of the country, particularly in tribal areas and remote villages, are followed foolish outdated rituals and traditions which often put life of people including small children/ infants at high risk.
It is a big curse as it is directly linked to hunger. Poor people are those people who will do every possible thing, right or wrong, to manage their two square meals. Only one thing is suffice to say on this issue is that our country, our beloved Bharat Mata, is known as the hunger capital of the world.
The Way Ahead
We, all the responsible and sane members of the society, must take a pledge that we would not hesitate to do whatever we can do to annihilate the above mentioned social evils wherever these exist. It is only then in the long run, evils from society can be eradicated. We, instead of waiting for others to take action, must take first step to begin the long journey.
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After coming to terms with the comprehension that the rights and duties of the citizens are interwoven and correlative, our parliamentarians finally inserted the fundamental duties through the enactment of 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act in 1976. This amendment incorporated a new part – Part IV A to the Constitution that comprises of only one Article, namely Article 51 A, which specifies a code of ten fundamental duties of the citizens. One more fundamental duty was added in 2002.
This was deliberately done on the part of the then parliamentarians, especially the party in the power the Congress party, as our original and constitution contained only fundamental rights and not fundamental duties. The then ruling party, declaring the non-inclusion of fundamental duties in the constitution as a historical mistake, made the claim that what the framers of the constitution failed to do was being done then.
In 1976, during the course of the internal emergency (1975-77) as the need and necessity of fundamental duties was felt the Congress Party formed the Sardar Swarn Singh Committee to make the recommendations about it.
The Committee, while recommending the incorporation of a separate chapter on Fundamental Duties in the Constitution, emphasized that citizens should become conscious that in addition to the enjoyment of fundamental rights, they also do have certain duties to perform.
However, in the process of enactment of 42nd Amendment the government did not accept all recommendations of the Swarn Singh Committee. The recommendations not accepted by the then government were:
- The parliament may provide for the imposition of such pending or punishment as may be considered appropriate for any non-compliance with or refusal to observe any of the duties.
- No law imposing such penalty or punishment shall be called in question in any court on the ground of infringement of any Fundamental Rights or on the ground of repugnancy to any other provision of the Constitution of India.
- Duty to pay taxes should be a Fundamental Duty of the citizens.
Read Also: Fundamental Duties of Indian Citizen
Fundamental Duties as listed in the Constitution
Article 51 A of the constitution of India states that it shall be the duty of every citizen of India:
(ii) To cherish and follow the noble ideals that inspired the national struggle for freedom;
(iii) To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
(iv) To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities and to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
(v) To value and preserve the rich heritage of the country’s composite culture;
(vii) To develop scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform.
(viii) To safeguard public property and to abjure violence;
(ix) To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement and;
(x) To provide opportunities for education to his child or ward between the age of six and fourteen years. This (duty) was added by the 86th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2002.
Characteristics of the Fundamental Duties
Some of the Fundamental Duties belong to the class of moral duties and others and belong to the class of civic duties. For example, cherishing noble ideals of freedom struggle is a moral duty and respecting the constitution, National Flag and National Anthem is a civil duty.
Fundamental Duties are about such values that have been a part of Indian tradition, religions, mythologies and practices. In fact; the duties are integral to the Indian way of life.
In this context it is important to mention here what the Verna Committee had said that on Fundamental Duties. The committee said, essentially all that is contained in the Fundamental Duties is just a codification of tasks integral to the Indian way of life. A close scrutiny of clauses of Article 51 A indicates that a number of these clauses basically refer to such values as have been a part of the Indian tradition, mythology, religious and practices….it would be essential to create public awareness of the need to appreciate and internalize the concept and practice of Fundamental Duties with particular emphasis on the necessity of creating a harmonious society with a scientific outlook, free from tensions and turmoils.
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Fundamental Duties, Human rights and Mahatma Gandhi
The Fundamental duties, incorporated in the Article 51 A, are in concord with Article 29 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that says:
“Everyone has duties to community which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.”
Mahatma Gandhi, while expressing his thoughts on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, said: “The source of right is duty. If we all discharge our duties, rights will not be far to seek. If leaving duties unperformed we run after rights, they will escape us like will 0’ the wisp, the more we pursue them, the further they will fly.”
Importance of Fundamental Duties
Fundamental Duties act as a reminder to the citizens that while enjoying their fundamental rights, they must not forget the duties they owe to their country and their society.
These duties function as a warning against the anti-social and anti-national activities such as burning the national flag and so on. For most of the citizens these duties are not only a source of inspiration but also promote discipline and commitment among them. The duties instigate a feeling that the citizens are not spectators only but active participants too in the process of fulfillment of national goals.
Since the Fundamental Duties are enforceable by law, the Parliament has got the power for the imposition of appropriate penalty for failure to fulfill any of them.
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The government of India has decided to shut down Medical Council of India and bring the new National Medical Commission in its place to correct the whole medical ecosystem. Recently cabinet has approved the new bill to replace MCI with NMC.
After approval of the parliament and President’s signature, the bill will bring NMC into existence to become the main regulatory body and take over all roles and responsibilities of the MCI. Currently, the MCI is a statutory body for establishing uniform and high standards of medical education in India.
The bill is considered to enable a forward movement in the area of medical education reform. This new bill will replace the Medical Council 1956 Act.
This move of government came after a suggestion from a high-level committee headed by Niti Aayog vice chairman Arvind Panagariya. The four-member panel was to look into the issue of poor regulation of medical education by MCI. Others members were Prime Ministers Additional Principal Secretary PK Mishra, Niti Aayog CEO Amitabh Kant and Health Secretary Bhanu Pratap Sharma.
Structure of National Medical Commission
There will be 25 members in NMC.
- 1 Chairman
- 1 Member Secretary
- 12 Ex-Officio Members
- 11 Part-time Members
Ex-officio members of NMC
- Four presidents of boards
- DG (ICMR)
- Dir (AIIMS, New Delhi)
- Nominee of Ministry
- Nominees of PGI Chandigarh
- Nominees of JIPMER Puducherry
- Nominees of TMCH Mumbai and
- Nominees of NEIGRIHMS Shillong
Part-time members of NMC
- 3 members from management, economy, law, consumer rights, health research, science and technology
- 3 members from the Medical Advisory Council
- 5 elected medical persons
It must be noted that at least 16 and up to 22 of the 25 members of NMC would be medical professionals. The selection of members will be done by a search committee chaired by Cabinet Secretary.
Features of New National Medical Commission Bill
The new bill will move the approach towards outcome-based regulation of medical education rather than process oriented regulation.
It will ensure proper separation of functions within the regulator by having autonomous boards.
It will create accountable and transparent procedures for maintaining standards in Medical Education.
It will create a forward-looking approach towards ensuring sufficient health workforce in India.
It will end heavy-handed regulatory control over medical education institutions and a shift towards outcome-based monitoring.
In the whole scheme of the Constitution of India the Directive Principles of State Policy are in the form of guidelines to the governments at the center as well as states. Though these principles are non-judiciable, they are essential in the governance of India.
Taken as an idea from the Irish Republic, the Directive Principles of State Policy were incorporated in the Constitution of India with an aim to deliver economic justice and to avoid concentration of wealth in the hands of a few people. They are so instrumental in the good governance that no government can afford to ignore them. Directive principles of state policy, de-facto, are the directives for the future government to blend them in the decision and policies formulated by them.
Also Read: The Directive Principles of State Policy
Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) and Universalization of Education
At the time of independence, the percentage of literate people was only 14%. Realizing the importance of education our Government laid emphasis on the spread of literacy among the masses. Inspite of the efforts of the Government in raising the level of literacy, a large section of our population elementary education and its universalisation.
For the spread of mass literacy at primary stage, the government of India, according to National Policy on Education, 1986, launched National Literacy Mission and ‘Operation Blackboard’. The government and many voluntary organizations are making special efforts to educate, those, who were deprived of the benefits of education in their childhood, by opening night schools and adult literacy centers.
Many distance education programmes through correspondence courses and open learning have been initiated in many states. To accomplish the goal of universalization of education the National Institute of Open Schooling and Several other Open University have been set-up. Through the 86th Amendment Act, 2002, the Directive Principles advocating free and compulsory education for children up to age of 14 years has been incorporated in the list of Fundamental Rights under Article 21 A.
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DPSP and the Child Labour
Despite having many provisions about children welfare we are facing impediments in eliminating child labour from this part of the world. One of the Directive Principles of State policy caters opportunities and facilities to children to develop in a healthy manner. There is also a Fundament Rights against Exploitation of Children. Our law of the land prohibits the employment of Children below the age of 14 years in mines and industries which are hazardous to their health.
In most of the cases it is the attitude of the parents that is not helpful in the elimination of child labour in India. Many parents force their children, to do some sort of work to earn money and contribute to the family income. However, apart from the lack of will, poverty and social stigma are most important constraints in the accomplishment of eradication of this problem.
It has been finally, as it seems, accepted by our policy makers that unless the willingness and awareness to get rid of the social challenge comes from within, all efforts by governments at various levels would prove useless.
The “Dream of developed India 2020” of Dr. Abdul Kalam Azad can be achieved only when the children, the future of the country, are secured and protected from being exploited.
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DPSP and the Status of Women
In Indian Society, basically being a male dominated society, father is the head of the family and mother’s position is subordinated to him, that indicates toward a naturally weak position of women. On account of the cruel social customs and religious practices like purdah and Dowry etc., women have been suffering a great deal from the ages.
Women are nearly 48%, that translate into the figure of about 496 million, of total population of the country as per 2001 census. Our Constitution through Fundamental Rights and many Directive Principles of State Policy has stressed the necessity of enhancing the status and education of women. An adequate means of livelihood and equal pay with that men for their work have been catered to women.
Health care and maternity relief have also been catered to working women. Even in the section dealing with Fundamental Duties, it is has been stressed that it is a duty of every citizen of India to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.
Many judicial decisions to restore the dignity of women, to protect their rights by providing them share in the family property, have been taken. Laws have been implemented for their liberation from cruel practices such as bridge burning for dowry, wife beating, sati etc. Prohibition of female infanticide, foetouscide, discrimination against girl child and child marriage’ nearly all form the text of the Directive Principles of State Policy, are measures that can certainly assist in improving the status of women.
It is through the 73rd and 74 Amendment Act, 1991-92, with an aim to empower women, reservation of one third of seats in the Panchayats and Municipalities has been made. There is a similar proposal, pending in the Parliament, for reservation of seats for them in Parliament and in the State Legislatures.
It has been emphasized by many analysts of the Constitution of India that the Directive Principles of State Policy are in the form of holy wishes having no legal sanction behind them; government is not bound to implement them, etc. However, it can be claimed that these Directive Principles are completely useless as they have their own utility and importance. DPSP are like a Polestar that provide directions. Its basic aim is to persuade the government to cater to the general people social and economic justice in all spheres of life.
In fact, no government can afford to ignore the instructions of the DPSP as they are the reflection of the public opinion and along with this they also reflect the basic spirit of the Preamble of our Constitution.
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